Background: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies.
Aims: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of agents targeting interleukins, immunoglobulins and complement factors and to suggest preventive recommendations.
Sources: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family.
Content: Patients receiving interleukin-1 (IL-1) -targeted (anakinra, canakinumab or rilonacept) or IL-5-targeted (mepolizumab) agents have a moderate risk of infection and no specific prevention strategies are recommended. The use of IL-6/IL-6 receptor-targeted agents (tocilizumab and siltuximab) is associated with a risk increase similar to that observed with anti-tumour necrosis factor-α agents. IL-12/23-targeted agents (ustekinumab) do not seem to pose a meaningful risk of infection, although screening for latent tuberculosis infection may be considered and antiviral prophylaxis should be given to hepatitis B surface antigen-positive patients. Therapy with IL-17-targeted agents (secukinumab, brodalumab and ixekizumab) may result in the development of mild-to-moderate mucocutaneous candidiasis. Pre-treatment screening for Strongyloides stercoralis and other geohelminths should be considered in patients who come from areas where these are endemic who are receiving IgE-targeted agents (omalizumab). C5-targeted agents (eculizumab) are associated with a markedly increased risk of infection due to encapsulated bacteria, particularly Neisseria spp. Meningococcal vaccination and chemoprophylaxis must be administered 2-4 weeks before initiating eculizumab. Patients with high-risk behaviours and their partners should also be screened for gonococcal infection.
Implications: Preventive strategies are particularly encouraged to minimize the occurrence of neisserial infection associated with eculizumab.
Keywords: Anakinra; Brodalumab; Canakinumab; Eculizumab; Infection; Ixekizumab; Prevention; Rilonacept; Secukinumab; Tocilizumab.
Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.