Variations of dietary intake by glycemic status and Hispanic/Latino heritage in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2018 Jan 30;6(1):e000486. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2017-000486. eCollection 2018.


Objective: A healthy diet is important for diabetes prevention and control; however, few studies have assessed dietary intake among US Hispanics/Latinos, a diverse population with a significant burden of diabetes. To address this gap in the literature, we determined intake of energy, macro/micronutrients, and vitamin supplements among Hispanics/Latinos by glycemic status and heritage.

Research design and methods: Cross-sectional study of adults aged 18-74 years from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (2008-2011) with complete baseline data on glycemic status and two 24-hour dietary recalls (n=13 089). Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted measures of intake were determined by glycemic status and heritage.

Results: Mean age-adjusted and sex-adjusted energy intake was significantly lower among Hispanics/Latinos with diagnosed diabetes compared with those with normal glycemic status (1665 vs 1873 kcal, P<0.001). Fiber intake was higher among those with diagnosed diabetes versus normal glycemic status (P<0.01). Among those with diagnosed diabetes, energy intake was highest among those with Cuban heritage compared with most other heritage groups (P<0.01 for all, except Mexicans), but there was no difference after additional adjustment. Fiber intake was significantly lower for those of Cuban heritage (vs Dominican, Central American, and Mexican), and sodium intake was significantly higher (vs all other heritage groups) (P<0.01 for all); findings were null after additional adjustment. There was no difference in supplemental intake of vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, or potassium by glycemic status.

Conclusions: As part of the care of Hispanics/Latinos with diabetes, attention should be made to fiber and sodium consumption.

Keywords: diabetes; dietary intake; glycemic status; hispanic/latinos; macronutrients.