Study of vitamin D deficiency prevalence in acute myocardial infarction

Int J Cardiol Heart Vessel. 2014 Mar 19;3:57-59. doi: 10.1016/j.ijchv.2014.03.004. eCollection 2014 Jun.

Abstract

Background: Deficiency of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] is a treatable condition that has been associated with coronary artery disease and many of its risk factors. A practical time to assess for 25(OH)D deficiency, and to initiate treatment, is at the time of an acute myocardial infarction(AMI). The prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency and the characteristics associated with it in patients with acute myocardial infarction are unknown.

Methods: In this study 25(OH)D was assessed in 314 subjects enrolled in a Sri Jayadeva Institute of Cardiovascular Science and Research(SJICS&R). Patients enrolled from December 1, 2011 to February 28, 2012 had serum samples sent to a centralized laboratory for analysis using the ELECYS assay. Normal 25(OH)D levels are ≥ 30 ng/ml, and patients with levels < 30 and > 20 ng/ml were classified as insufficient and those with levels ≤ 20 ng/ml as deficient. Vitamin D and other baseline characteristics were analyzed with T-test and chi-squared test.

Results: Of the 314 enrolled patents, 212 (67.5%) were 25(OH)D deficient and 50(16%) were insufficient, for a total of 83.5% of patients with abnormally low 25(OH)D levels. No significant heterogeneity was observed among age or gender sub groups but 25(OH)D deficiency was more commonly seen in those with lower socioeconomic status, lower activity levels, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia(LDL), hypertriglyceridemia and in smokers.

Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is present in most of the patients with acute myocardial infarction and it is associated with many of its risk factors in our study.

Keywords: AMI, Acute myocardial infarction; CAD, Coronary artery disease; Diabetes; Hypercholesterolemia; Inflammation; RAS, Renin angiotensin system; SJICS&R, Sri Jayadeva Institute of Cardiovascular Science and Research.