Uveitis-Glaucoma-Hyphaema Syndrome (UGH syndrome, or "Ellingson" Syndrome) is a rare condition caused by the mechanical trauma of an intraocular lens malpositioned over adjacent structures (iris, ciliary body, iridocorneal angle), leading to a spectrum of iris transillumination defects, microhyphaemas and pigmentary dispersion, concomitant with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). UGH Syndrome can also be characterized by chronic inflammation, secondary iris neovascularization, cystoid macular edema (CME). The fundamental step in the pathogenesis of UGH syndrome appears to arise from repetitive mechanical iris trauma by a malpositioned or subluxed IOL. These patients have uncomplicated cataract implants and return for episodes of blurry vision weeks to months after surgery. This may be accompanied by pain, photophobia, erythropsia, anterior uveitis, hyphaema along with raised intraocular pressure. A careful history and examination, as well as appropriate investigations can confirm the diagnostic. Treatment options are IOL Explantation exchange, topical and systemic medication, and cyclophotocoagulation, the placement of a Capsular Tension Ring to redistribute zonular tension and Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) Therapy.
Keywords: IOL; UGH syndrome; anti-VEGF Therapy; cystoid macular edema; glaucoma; hyphema; uveitis.