Background: A new version of the UVA/Padova Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) Simulator is presented which provides a more realistic testing scenario. The upgrades to the previous simulator, which was accepted by the Food and Drug Administration in 2013, are described.
Method: Intraday variability of insulin sensitivity (SI) has been modeled, based on clinical T1D data, accounting for both intra- and intersubject variability of daily SI. Thus, time-varying distributions of both subject's basal insulin infusion and insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio were calculated and made available to the user. A model of "dawn" phenomenon based on clinical T1D data has been also included. Moreover, the model of subcutaneous insulin delivery has been updated with a recently developed model of commercially available fast-acting insulin analogs. Models of both intradermal and inhaled insulin pharmacokinetics have been included. Finally, new models of error affecting continuous glucose monitoring and self-monitoring of blood glucose devices have been added.
Results: One hundred in silico adults, adolescent, and children have been generated according to the above modifications. The new simulator reproduces the intraday glucose variability observed in clinical data, also describing the nocturnal glucose increase, and the simulated insulin profiles reflect real life data.
Conclusions: The new modifications introduced in the T1D simulator allow to extend its domain of validity from "single-meal" to "single-day" scenarios, thus enabling a more realistic framework for in silico testing of advanced diabetes technologies including glucose sensors, new insulin molecules and artificial pancreas.
Keywords: computer simulation; diabetes control; modeling.