Chemical stresses fail to mimic the unfolded protein response resulting from luminal load with unfolded polypeptides

J Biol Chem. 2018 Apr 13;293(15):5600-5612. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA117.001484. Epub 2018 Feb 16.

Abstract

The stress sensors ATF6, IRE1, and PERK monitor deviations from homeostatic conditions in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a protein biogenesis compartment of eukaryotic cells. Their activation elicits unfolded protein responses (UPR) to re-establish proteostasis. UPR have been extensively investigated in cells exposed to chemicals that activate ER stress sensors by perturbing calcium, N-glycans, or redox homeostasis. Cell responses to variations in luminal load with unfolded proteins are, in contrast, poorly characterized. Here, we compared gene and protein expression profiles in HEK293 cells challenged with ER stress-inducing drugs or expressing model polypeptides. Drug titration to limit up-regulation of the endogenous ER stress reporters heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 5 (BiP/HSPA5) and homocysteine-inducible ER protein with ubiquitin-like domain 1 (HERP/HERPUD1) to levels comparable with luminal accumulation of unfolded proteins substantially reduced the amplitude of both transcriptional and translational responses. However, these drug-induced changes remained pleiotropic and failed to recapitulate responses to ER load with unfolded proteins. These required unfolded protein association with BiP and induced a much smaller subset of genes participating in a chaperone complex that binds unfolded peptide chains. In conclusion, UPR resulting from ER load with unfolded proteins proceed via a well-defined and fine-tuned pathway, whereas even mild chemical stresses caused by compounds often used to stimulate UPR induce cellular responses largely unrelated to the UPR or ER-mediated protein secretion.

Keywords: ER quality control; endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress); molecular chaperone; protein folding; protein misfolding; unfolded protein response (UPR).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Activating Transcription Factor 6 / genetics
  • Activating Transcription Factor 6 / metabolism
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone BiP
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress*
  • Endoribonucleases / genetics
  • Endoribonucleases / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Heat-Shock Proteins / genetics
  • Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • Unfolded Protein Response*
  • eIF-2 Kinase / genetics
  • eIF-2 Kinase / metabolism

Substances

  • ATF6 protein, human
  • Activating Transcription Factor 6
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone BiP
  • HSPA5 protein, human
  • Heat-Shock Proteins
  • EIF2AK3 protein, human
  • ERN1 protein, human
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • eIF-2 Kinase
  • Endoribonucleases