Purpose: Obesity results in decreased lung function and increased inflammation. Moderate aerobic exercise (AE) reduced lung inflammation and remodeling in a variety of respiratory disease models. Therefore, this study investigated whether AE can attenuate a diet-induced obesity respiratory phenotype; including airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), remodeling and inflammation.
Methods: Sixty C57Bl/6 male mice were distributed into four groups: control lean (CL), exercise lean (EL), obese (O) and obese exercise (OE) groups (2 sets of 7 and 8 mice per group; n = 15). A classical model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) over 12 weeks was used. AE was performed 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 5 weeks. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), lung inflammation and remodeling, adipokines and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was determined.
Results: A high fat diet over 18 weeks significantly increased body weight (p < .0001). Five weeks of AE significantly reduced both AHR and pulmonary inflammation. AHR in obese mice that exercised was reduced at the basal level (p < .05), vehicle (PBS) (p < .05), 6.25 MCh mg/mL (p < .05), 12.5 MCh mg/mL (p < .01), 25 MCh mg/mL (p < .01) and 50 MCh mg/mL (p < .05). Collagen (p < .001) and elastic (p < .001) fiber deposition in airway wall and also smooth muscle thickness (p < .001) were reduced. The number of neutrophils (p < .001), macrophages (p < .001) and lymphocytes (p < .01) were reduced in the peribronchial space as well as in the BAL: lymphocytes (p < .01), macrophages (p < .01), neutrophils (p < .001). AE reduced obesity markers leptin (p < .001), IGF-1 (p < .01) and VEGF (p < .001), while increased adiponectin (p < .01) in BAL. AE also reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines in the BAL: IL-1β (p < .001), IL-12p40 (p < .001), IL-13 (p < .01), IL-17 (p < .001, IL-23 (p < .05) and TNF-alpha (p < .05), and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (p < .05).
Conclusions: Aerobic exercise reduces high fat diet-induced obese lung phenotype (AHR, pulmonary remodeling and inflammation), involving anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and adiponectin.
Keywords: Adipokines; Asthma; Exercise immunology; Hyperresponsiveness; Lung inflammation; Obesity.
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