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Environmental Physiology and Diving Medicine


Environmental Physiology and Diving Medicine

Gerardo Bosco et al. Front Psychol.


Man's experience and exploration of the underwater environment has been recorded from ancient times and today encompasses large sections of the population for sport enjoyment, recreational and commercial purpose, as well as military strategic goals. Knowledge, respect and maintenance of the underwater world is an essential development for our future and the knowledge acquired over the last few dozen years will change rapidly in the near future with plans to establish secure habitats with specific long-term goals of exploration, maintenance and survival. This summary will illustrate briefly the physiological changes induced by immersion, swimming, breath-hold diving and exploring while using special equipment in the water. Cardiac, circulatory and pulmonary vascular adaptation and the pathophysiology of novel syndromes have been demonstrated, which will allow selection of individual characteristics in order to succeed in various environments. Training and treatment for these new microenvironments will be suggested with description of successful pioneers in this field. This is a summary of the physiology and the present status of pathology and therapy for the field.

Keywords: decompression sickness; diving; gas exchange; oxygen; pulmonary edema.


US Navy Table 6 profile commonly used in clinical routine for DCS recompression procedure for recompression of divers with DCS or arterial gas embolism. Redrawn from Navy Department (2016).

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