Men seeking counselling in a Breast Cancer Risk Evaluation Clinic

Ecancermedicalscience. 2018 Jan 30;12:804. doi: 10.3332/ecancer.2018.804. eCollection 2018.

Abstract

Background: Hereditary breast and ovary cancer syndrome affects both genders but little is known about the uptake of genetic services by men. The objective of this study is to characterise the male population counselled through a multidisciplinary breast/ovarian program.

Methods: Descriptive analysis of male patients counselled from January 2000 to December 2015. Data in this analysis include new cancer diagnoses during prospective follow up.

Results: From 4,320 families registered, 362 male patients were identified: 236 (65.2%) from hereditary cancer families (HCF) and 126 (34.8%) from non-HCF. In HCF, 121 patients (51.3%) were mutation carriers (MC): BRCA2 - 102 (84.3%), BRCA1 - 16 (13.2%), CHEK2 - 1 (0.8%) and TP53 - 2 (1.7%). Non-HCF included 126 patients: 85 (67.5%) belonged to families without pathogenic mutations or with variants of unknown clinical significance; 22 (17.5%) refused testing after counselling and 19 (15.0%) did not meet criteria for testing. Both HCF and non-HCF included patients with previous cancer diagnoses: HCF- Breast Cancer (BC) - 18; prostate cancer (PC) - 13; melanoma - 1; others - 7) and non-HCF (BC - 77; PC - 20; gastric cancer (GC) - 1; melanoma - 8; bladder cancer - 1; others - 22). From the 121 MC identified (including the TP53 and CHEK2 carriers), 97 patients (80.2%) adhered to prospective surveillance. With a median follow-up of 36.9 months, 17 cancers were diagnosed in 14 patients, PC being the most frequently diagnosed neoplasia (5 cases). Eleven patients (78.6%) are alive and three patients died of advanced cancer (2 with GC, 1 with disseminated adenocarcinoma).

Conclusion: We observed a high adherence to counselling, genetic testing and active surveillance by men belonging to hereditary BC families. Male carriers of pathogenic DNA variants are at risk for several cancers and should be included in prospective follow-up studies.

Keywords: breast cancer; genetic counselling; genetic testing; germline mutations; hereditary cancer; prostate cancer; surveillance program.