The periodontium is a complex tissue with epithelial components and a complex set of mesodermal derived alveolar bone, cellular and a cellular cementum, and tendon like ligaments (PDL). The current evidence demonstrates that the major pool of periodontal stem cells is derived from a population of micro vascular associated aSMA-positive stem/progenitor (PSC) cells that by lineage tracing form all three major mesodermal derived components of the periodontium. With in vitro aSMA+ stem cells, transcriptome and chip- seq experiments, the gene network and enhancer maps were determined at several differentiation states of the PSC. Current work on the role of the Bmp2 gene in the periodontal stem cell differentiation demonstrated that this Wnt regulated gene, Bmp2, is necessary for differentiation to all three major mesodermal derived component of the periodontium. The mechanism and use of Sclerostin antibody as an activator of Wnt signaling and Bmp2 gene as a potential route to treat craniofacial bone loss is discussed. As well, the mechanism and use of Pth in the treatment of periodontal bone loss or other craniofacial bone loss is presented in this review.
Keywords: Bmp2; Epigenomics; Periodontium; Pth; Sclerostin; Stem Cells.