Purpose of review: The purposes of this review are to identify population characteristics of important risk factors for the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in the United States and to discuss barriers and opportunities to improve awareness, management, and outcomes in patients with DKD.
Recent findings: The major risk factors for the development and progression of DKD include hyperglycemia, hypertension, and albuminuria. DKD disproportionately affects minorities and individuals with low educational and socioeconomic status. Barriers to effective management of DKD include the following: (a) limited patient and healthcare provider awareness of DKD, (b) lack of timely referrals of patients to a nephrologist, (c) low patient healthcare literacy, and (d) insufficient access to healthcare and health insurance. Increased patient and physician awareness of DKD has been shown to enhance patient outcomes. Multifactorial and multidisciplinary interventions targeting multiple risk factors and patient/physician education may provide better outcomes in patients with DKD.
Keywords: Albuminuria; Chronic kidney disease; Diabetes; Diabetic kidney disease.