Genomic analyses of cancer have identified recurrent point mutations in the RNA splicing factor-encoding genes SF3B1, U2AF1, and SRSF2 that confer an alteration of function. Cancer cells bearing these mutations are preferentially dependent on wild-type (WT) spliceosome function, but clinically relevant means to therapeutically target the spliceosome do not currently exist. Here we describe an orally available modulator of the SF3b complex, H3B-8800, which potently and preferentially kills spliceosome-mutant epithelial and hematologic tumor cells. These killing effects of H3B-8800 are due to its direct interaction with the SF3b complex, as evidenced by loss of H3B-8800 activity in drug-resistant cells bearing mutations in genes encoding SF3b components. Although H3B-8800 modulates WT and mutant spliceosome activity, the preferential killing of spliceosome-mutant cells is due to retention of short, GC-rich introns, which are enriched for genes encoding spliceosome components. These data demonstrate the therapeutic potential of splicing modulation in spliceosome-mutant cancers.