A strain of a novel anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative coccus was isolated from the tongue biofilm of a Thai child. This strain was shown, at the phenotypic level and based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, to be a member of the genus Veillonella. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA, dnaK and rpoB gene sequences indicated that phylogenetically the strain comprised a distinct novel branch within the genus Veillonella. The novel strain showed 99.8, 95.1 and 95.9 % similarity to partial 16S rRNA, dnaK and rpoB gene sequences, respectively, to the type strains of the two most closely related species, Veillonelladispar ATCC 17748T and Veillonellatobetsuensis ATCC BAA-2400T. The novel strain could be discriminated from previously reported species of the genus Veillonella based on partial dnaK and rpoB gene sequencing and average nucleotide identity values. The major acid end-product produced by this strain was acetic acid under anaerobic conditions in trypticase-yeast extract-haemin with 1 % (w/v) glucose or fructose medium. Lactate was fermented to acetic acid and propionic acid. Based on these observations, this strain represents a novel species, for which the name Veillonella infantium sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T11011-4T (=JCM 31738T=TSD-88T).
Keywords: Oral anaerobic Gram-stain-negative cocci; Veillonella infantium sp. nov.; a Thai child; tongue biofilm.