Real-time continuous glucose monitoring in adults with type 1 diabetes and impaired hypoglycaemia awareness or severe hypoglycaemia treated with multiple daily insulin injections (HypoDE): a multicentre, randomised controlled trial

Lancet. 2018 Apr 7;391(10128):1367-1377. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30297-6. Epub 2018 Feb 16.


Background: The effectiveness of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (rtCGM) in avoidance of hypoglycaemia among high-risk individuals with type 1 diabetes treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) is unknown. We aimed to ascertain whether the incidence and severity of hypoglycaemia can be reduced through use of rtCGM in these individuals.

Methods: The HypoDE study was a 6-month, multicentre, open-label, parallel, randomised controlled trial done at 12 diabetes practices in Germany. Eligible participants had type 1 diabetes and a history of impaired hypoglycaemia awareness or severe hypoglycaemia during the previous year. All participants wore a masked rtCGM system for 28 days and were then randomly assigned to 26 weeks of unmasked rtCGM (Dexcom G5 Mobile system) or to the control group (continuing with self-monitoring of blood glucose). Block randomisation with 1:1 allocation was done centrally, with the study site as the stratifying variable. Masking of participants and study sites was not possible. Control participants wore a masked rtCGM system during the follow-up phase (weeks 22-26). The primary outcome was the baseline-adjusted number of hypoglycaemic events (defined as glucose ≤3·0 mmol/L for ≥20 min) during the follow-up phase. The full dataset analysis comprised participants who wore the rtCGM system during the baseline and follow-up phases. The intention-to-treat analysis comprised all randomised participants. This trial is registered with, number NCT02671968.

Findings: Between March 4, 2016, and Jan 12, 2017, 149 participants were randomly assigned (n=74 to the control group; n=75 to the rtCGM group) and 141 completed the follow-up phase (n=66 in the control group, n=75 in the rtCGM group). The mean number of hypoglycaemic events per 28 days among participants in the rtCGM group was reduced from 10·8 (SD 10·0) to 3·5 (4·7); reductions among control participants were negligible (from 14·4 [12·4] to 13·7 [11·6]). Incidence of hypoglycaemic events decreased by 72% for participants in the rtCGM group (incidence rate ratio 0·28 [95% CI 0·20-0·39], p<0·0001). 18 serious adverse events were reported: seven in the control group, ten in the rtCGM group, and one before randomisation. No event was considered to be related to the investigational device.

Interpretation: Usage of rtCGM reduced the number of hypoglycaemic events in individuals with type 1 diabetes treated by MDI and with impaired hypoglycaemia awareness or severe hypoglycaemia.

Funding: Dexcom Inc.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Awareness
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring / methods*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemia / blood
  • Hypoglycemia / drug therapy*
  • Hypoglycemia / psychology
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Injections, Subcutaneous
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Middle Aged


  • Blood Glucose
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin

Associated data