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. 2018 Feb 5;9:59.
doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00059. eCollection 2018.

Relative Handgrip Strength Is Inversely Associated With Metabolic Profile and Metabolic Disease in the General Population in China

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Relative Handgrip Strength Is Inversely Associated With Metabolic Profile and Metabolic Disease in the General Population in China

Dongxue Li et al. Front Physiol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Absolute handgrip strength has been correlated with metabolic profile and metabolic disease. Whether relative handgrip strength is also associated with metabolic disease has not been assessed. This study aimed at assessing the association of relative handgrip strength with metabolic profile and metabolic disease in the general population in China. Methods: Data were derived from an ongoing cross-sectional survey of the 2013 National Physical and Health in Shanxi Province, which involved 5520 participants. Multiple linear regression or multiple logistic regression analysis were used to assess the association of absolute/relative handgrip strength with the metabolic profile, preclinical, and established stages of metabolic diseases. Results: This study revealed that relative handgrip strength, that is when normalized to BMI, was associated with: (1) in both genders for more favorable blood lipid levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [males: b = 0.19 (0.15, 0.23); females: b = 0.22 (0.17, 0.28)], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [males: b = -0.14 (-0.23, -0.05); females: b = -0.19 (-0.31, -0.18)], triglycerides [males: b = -0.58 (-0.74, -0.43); females: b = -0.55 (-0.74, -0.36)] and total cholesterol [males: b = -0.20 (-0.31, -0.10); females: b = -0.19 (-0.32, -0.06)]; and better serum glucose levels in males [b = -0.30 (-0.46, -0.15)]. (2) lower risk of impaired fasting glucose in males {third quartile [OR = 0.66 (0.45-0.95)] and fourth quartile [OR = 0.46 (0.30-0.71)] vs. first quartile} and dyslipidemia in both genders {third quartile [males: OR = 0.65 (0.48-0.87); females: OR = 0.68 (0.53-0.86)] and fourth quartile [males: OR = 0.47 (0.35-0.64); females: OR = 0.47(0.36-0.61)] vs. first quartile}. (3) lower risk of hyperlipidemia in both genders third quartile [males: OR = 0.66 (0.50-0.87); females: OR = 0.57 (0.43-0.75)] and fourth quartile [males: OR = 0.35 (0.26-0.47); females: OR = 0.51 (0.38-0.70)] vs. first quartile. However, contrary to relative handgrip strength, higher absolute handgrip strength was associated with unfavorable metabolic profiles and higher risk of metabolic diseases. These paradoxical associations were retained even after adjusted for BMI by employed a multivariate analysis. Conclusion: We conclude that measurement of relative handgrip strength can be used as a reasonable clinical predictor of metabolic health and disease.

Keywords: association; handgrip strength; hyperlipidemia; metabolism; type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Association of absolute handgrip strength, relative handgrip strength with the metabolic profile in male subjects.TC, total cholesterol; logTG, means of log-transformed for triglyceride; HDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; GLU, serum glucose; HGS, absolute handgrip strength; RHGS, relative handgrip strength. Absolute handgrip strength and relative handgrip strength were standardized before entering into the linear regression model. Model 1: adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol drinking, and educational status; Model 2: Model 1+ adjusted for BMI.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Association of absolute handgrip strength, relative handgrip strength with the metabolic profile in female subjects.TC, total cholesterol; logTG, means of log-transformed for triglyceride; HDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; GLU, serum glucose; HGS, absolute handgrip strength; RHGS, relative handgrip strength. Absolute handgrip strength and relative handgrip strength were standardized before entering into the linear regression model. Model 1: adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol drinking, and educational status; Model 2: Model 1+ adjusted for BMI.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Association of absolute handgrip strength, relative handgrip strength with metabolic disease in male subjects.TC, total cholesterol; logTG, means of log-transformed for triglyceride; HDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; GLU, serum glucose; HGS, absolute handgrip strength; RHGS, relative handgrip strength. Absolute handgrip strength and relative handgrip strength were standardized before entering into the logistic regression model. Model 1: adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol drinking, and educational status; Model 2: Model 1+ adjusted for BMI.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Association of absolute handgrip strength, relative handgrip strength with metabolic disease in female subjects.TC, total cholesterol; logTG, means of log-transformed for triglyceride; HDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; GLU, serum glucose; HGS, absolute handgrip strength; RHGS, relative handgrip strength. Absolute handgrip strength and relative handgrip strength were standardized before entering into the logistic regression model. Model 1: adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol drinking, and educational status; Model 2: Model 1+ adjusted for BMI.

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