Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Filters applied. Clear all
Review
. 2018 Mar;48(2):95-108.
doi: 10.1007/s10519-018-9889-z. Epub 2018 Feb 19.

The Biological Contributions to Gender Identity and Gender Diversity: Bringing Data to the Table

Affiliations
Review

The Biological Contributions to Gender Identity and Gender Diversity: Bringing Data to the Table

Tinca J C Polderman et al. Behav Genet. .

Abstract

The American Psychological Association defines gender identity as, "A person's deeply-felt, inherent sense of being a boy, a man, or a male; a girl, a woman, or a female; or an alternative gender (e.g., genderqueer, gender nonconforming, gender neutral) that may or may not correspond to a person's sex assigned at birth or to a person's primary or secondary sex characteristics" (American Psychological Association, Am Psychol 70(9):832-864, 2015). Here we review the evidence that gender identity and related socially defined gender constructs are influenced in part by innate factors including genes. Based on the data reviewed, we hypothesize that gender identity is a multifactorial complex trait with a heritable polygenic component. We argue that increasing the awareness of the biological diversity underlying gender identity development is relevant to all domains of social, medical, and neuroscience research and foundational for reducing health disparities and promoting human-rights protections for gender minorities.

Keywords: Gender dysphoria; Gender identity; Genetics; Heritability; Transgender; Twin studies.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 5 articles

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback