Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder characterized by different clinical subsets. Recently, great efforts have been made searching for reliable biomarkers able to ameliorate the diagnostic algorithm and the prognostic stratification of pSS patients and ultimately allowing the scientific community to address some of the unmet needs for the disease. In this review, we have summarized the state of the art of 'traditional' widely acknowledged clinical, serological and histologic biomarkers for pSS with the aim of highlighting their relevance and limitations in clinical practice. We have also explored some of the novel potential biomarkers that have been proposed more recently, potentially able to open new ways in the assessment of the disease.
Keywords: anti-Ro/SSA; autoantibodies; epigenetics; germinal center-like structures; interferon signature; major salivary gland biopsy; minor salivary gland biopsy; primary Sjögren’s syndrome; salivary proteomics; tears biomarkers.