Background: Vascular trauma data have been submitted to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma PROspective Observational Vascular Injury Trial (PROOVIT) database since 2013. We present data to describe current use of endovascular surgery in vascular trauma.
Methods: Registry data from March 2013 to December 2016 were reviewed. All trauma patients who had an injury to a named artery, except the forearm and lower leg, were included. Arteries were grouped into anatomic regions and by compressible and noncompressible region for analysis. This review focused on patients with noncompressible transection, partial transection, or flow-limiting defect injuries. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the relationships between study variables.
Results: One thousand one hundred forty-three patients from 22 institutions were included. Median age was 32 years (interquartile range, 23-48) and 76% (n = 871) were male. Mechanisms of injury were 49% (n = 561) blunt, 41% (n = 464) penetrating, and 1.8% (n = 21) of mixed aetiology. Gunshot wounds accounted for 73% (n = 341) of all penetrating injuries. Endovascular techniques were used least often in limb trauma and most commonly in patients with blunt injuries to more than one region. Penetrating wounds to any region were preferentially treated with open surgery (74%, n = 341/459). The most common indication for endovascular treatment was blunt noncompressible torso injuries. These patients had higher Injury Severity Scores and longer associated hospital stays, but required less packed red blood cells, and had lower in hospital mortality than those treated with open surgery. On multivariate analysis, admission low hemoglobin concentration and abdominal injury were independent predictors of mortality.
Conclusion: Our review of PROOVIT registry data demonstrates a high utilization of endovascular therapy among severely injured blunt trauma patients primarily with noncompressible torso hemorrhage. This is associated with a decreased need for blood transfusion and improved survival despite longer length of stay.
Level of evidence: Therapeutic/care management, level III.