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. 2018 Feb 16;7(2):23.
doi: 10.3390/foods7020023.

Characterization and Determination of Interesterification Markers (Triacylglycerol Regioisomers) in Confectionery Oils by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

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Characterization and Determination of Interesterification Markers (Triacylglycerol Regioisomers) in Confectionery Oils by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Valentina Santoro et al. Foods. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Interesterification is an industrial transformation process aiming to change the physico-chemical properties of vegetable oils by redistributing fatty acid position within the original constituent of the triglycerides. In the confectionery industry, controlling formation degree of positional isomers is important in order to obtain fats with the desired properties. Silver ion HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) is the analytical technique usually adopted to separate triglycerides (TAGs) having different unsaturation degrees. However, separation of TAG positional isomers is a challenge when the number of double bonds is the same and the only difference is in their position within the triglyceride molecule. The TAG positional isomers involved in the present work have a structural specificity that require a separation method tailored to the needs of confectionery industry. The aim of this work was to obtain a chromatographic resolution that might allow reliable qualitative and quantitative evaluation of TAG positional isomers within reasonably rapid retention times and robust in respect of repeatability and reproducibility. The resulting analytical procedure was applied both to confectionery raw materials and final products.

Keywords: confectionery fats; positional isomers; silver-ion HPLC; triglycerides.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Chromatographic separation of standard TAG (triglyceride) regioisomers visualized at the extracted precursor ion m/z values.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Full mass spectra of isobaric positional isomers POP (palmitoyl-oleoyl-palmitoyl glycerol) (a) and PPO (palmitoyl-palmitoyl-oleoyl glycerol) (b) showing the specificity of thermal fragmentation mechanism.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Chromatographic separation of TAG regioisomers typical of interesterified Shea oil (a) and Palm oil (b) visualized at the extracted precursor ion m/z values.
Figure 4
Figure 4
LC-MS (Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) chromatograms of cocoa butter samples pre deodorization (a) and deodorized at two different temperatures 220 °C (b) and 260 °C (c), corresponding to the absence and to the presence of thermally formed positional isomers, respectively.

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