The Anti-Cancer Effects of Frondoside A

Mar Drugs. 2018 Feb 19;16(2):64. doi: 10.3390/md16020064.


Frondoside A is a triterpenoid glycoside from the Atlantic Sea Cucumber, Cucumariafrondosa. Frondoside A has a broad spectrum of anti-cancer effects, including induction of cellular apoptosis, inhibition of cancer cell growth, migration, invasion, formation of metastases, and angiogenesis. In cell lines and animal models studied to date, the anti-cancer effects of the compound are seen in all solid cancers, lymphomas, and leukemias studied to date. These effects appear to be due to potent inhibition of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), which is up-regulated in many cancers. In mouse models, frondoside A has synergistic effects with conventional chemotherapeutic agents, such as gemcitabine, paclitaxel, and cisplatin. Frondoside A administration is well-tolerated. No side effects have been reported and the compound has no significant effects on body weight, blood cells, or on hepatic and renal function tests after long-term administration. Frondoside A may be valuable in the treatment of malignancies, either as a single agent or in combination with other therapeutic modalities.

Keywords: angiogenesis; apoptosis; cancer; frondoside A; invasion; metastases; tumor growth.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Apoptosis / drug effects
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Glycosides / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy
  • Sea Cucumbers / chemistry
  • Triterpenes / pharmacology*


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Glycosides
  • Triterpenes
  • frondoside A