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Review
. 2018;87:19-56.
doi: 10.1007/978-981-10-7757-9_2.

Microbial Rhodopsins

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Review

Microbial Rhodopsins

Ivan Gushchin et al. Subcell Biochem. .

Abstract

Microbial rhodopsins (MRs) are a large family of photoactive membrane proteins, found in microorganisms belonging to all kingdoms of life, with new members being constantly discovered. Among the MRs are light-driven proton, cation and anion pumps, light-gated cation and anion channels, and various photoreceptors. Due to their abundance and amenability to studies, MRs served as model systems for a great variety of biophysical techniques, and recently found a great application as optogenetic tools. While the basic aspects of microbial rhodopsins functioning have been known for some time, there is still a plenty of unanswered questions. This chapter presents and summarizes the available knowledge, focusing on the functional and structural studies.

Keywords: Bacteriorhodopsin; Ion channel; Ion pump; Optogenetics; Photoactive proteins; X-ray crystallography.

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