Inflammation is a biological response of the immune system that can be triggered by a variety of factors, including pathogens, damaged cells and toxic compounds. These factors may induce acute and/or chronic inflammatory responses in the heart, pancreas, liver, kidney, lung, brain, intestinal tract and reproductive system, potentially leading to tissue damage or disease. Both infectious and non-infectious agents and cell damage activate inflammatory cells and trigger inflammatory signaling pathways, most commonly the NF-κB, MAPK, and JAK-STAT pathways. Here, we review inflammatory responses within organs, focusing on the etiology of inflammation, inflammatory response mechanisms, resolution of inflammation, and organ-specific inflammatory responses.
Keywords: chemokines; cytokines; inflammation; inflammatory signaling pathways; organ diseases.