Dairy consumption and inflammatory profile: A cross-sectional population-based study, São Paulo, Brazil

Nutrition. 2018 Apr:48:1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2017.10.003. Epub 2017 Oct 26.


Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dairy product consumption and plasma inflammatory biomarkers levels among a representative sample of Brazilian adults from São Paulo City.

Methods: Data were acquired from the Health Survey for São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based study. All individuals 20 to 59 y of age with complete food consumption information (24-h dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire) and blood sample analysis were included (N = 259). The sample was separated into two groups according to systemic inflammatory pattern considering plasma levels of C-reactive protein; tumor necrosis factor-α; soluble intracellular adhesion molecule; soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule, monocyte chemoattractant protein; interleukin-1β, -6, -8, -10, and -12; adiponectin; leptin; and homocysteine. Multiple logistic regression tests were conducted to estimate the odds ratio for the inflammatory cluster across tertiles of dairy consumption.

Results: When adjusted by age, smoking status, and energy intake the odds ratio for the inflammatory cluster group in the highest tertile of yogurt consumption was 0.34 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.81) relative to the reference tertile, demonstrating also a linear effect (Ptrend = 0.015). Cheese consumption exhibited an odds ratio of 2.49 (95% CI, 1.09-5.75) relative to the reference.

Conclusions: Increasing yogurt consumption might have a protective effect on inflammation, whereas cheese consumption appears to be associated with a proinflammatory status. The results of the present study aggregate a new perspective on existing evidence demonstrating the importance of assessing the contribution of dairy products on diet and their effect on the development of non-communicable diseases and associated risk factors.

Keywords: Biomarkers; Cardiovascular health; Dairy products; Health survey for São Paulo; Inflammation; Yogurt.

MeSH terms

  • Adiponectin / blood
  • Adult
  • Brazil / epidemiology
  • C-Reactive Protein / analysis
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules / blood
  • Cheese / adverse effects*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dairy Products / adverse effects*
  • Diet / adverse effects*
  • Diet Surveys
  • Energy Intake
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Homocysteine / blood
  • Humans
  • Inflammation Mediators / blood*
  • Interleukins / blood
  • Leptin / blood
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins / blood
  • Noncommunicable Diseases / epidemiology
  • Odds Ratio
  • Risk Factors
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood
  • Yogurt / adverse effects*
  • Young Adult


  • ADIPOQ protein, human
  • Adiponectin
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Interleukins
  • Leptin
  • Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Homocysteine
  • C-Reactive Protein