Successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for osteopetrosis using reduced intensity conditioning

Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018 Jun;65(6):e27010. doi: 10.1002/pbc.27010. Epub 2018 Feb 22.


Background: Infantile malignant osteopetrosis (IMO) is an autosomal recessive condition characterized by defective osteoclast activity, with hematopoietic bone marrow transplant being the only available cure. Over the past several years, new conditioning regimes and donor options have emerged, thus extending the possibility of cure to a greater number of patients and improving the outcomes of bone marrow transplant. Here we detail the outcomes of bone marrow transplant in a cohort of 31 patients treated with a combination of fludarabine, treosulphan, thiotepa, and antithymocyte globulin.

Procedures: Thirty-one patients with IMO who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with fludarabine, treosulphan, thiotepa, and antithymocyte globulin at our center from 2012 to 2017 are retrospectively reviewed in this study. Twenty-six patients were transplanted from 10/10 matched donors (13 from siblings, 11 from unrelated, and two from extended family donors), four from 9/10 matched unrelated donors, and one from a 9/10 matched family donor.

Results: Overall survival was 100% with a median follow-up of 363 days (range 74-1891). There were 12 cases of acute graft versus host disease (GvHD) (38.7%), no cases of veno-occlusive disease, and eight cases of hypercalcemia (25.8%). Almost 80% of patients suffered viral reactivations with two cases of Epstein-Barr-virus-driven post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. All cases of GvHD and viral reactivation were successfully treated.

Conclusions: We conclude that transplantation in children with IMO using fludarabine, treosulphan, thiotepa, and antithymocyte globulin is safe and effective and should be performed as early as possible following diagnosis, prior to the development of severe disease sequelae.

Keywords: conditioning; osteopetrosis; transplantation.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antilymphocyte Serum / administration & dosage
  • Busulfan / administration & dosage
  • Busulfan / analogs & derivatives
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Melphalan / administration & dosage
  • Myeloablative Agonists / administration & dosage*
  • Osteopetrosis / therapy*
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Transplantation Conditioning*
  • Vidarabine / administration & dosage
  • Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives
  • Young Adult


  • Antilymphocyte Serum
  • Myeloablative Agonists
  • treosulfan
  • Vidarabine
  • Busulfan
  • fludarabine
  • Melphalan