Objective: To analyze the status and trends of soil-transmitted nematode infections in Jiangxi Province from 1989 to 2014, so as to provide the evidence for generating the strategy of soil-transmitted nematode prevention and control.
Methods: The data of three epidemiological surveys on human parasitic diseases (in 1989, 2002 and 2014) were classified and analyzed. The stool examination by Kato-Katz's thick smear method was adopted for the investigation of soil-transmitted nematode infections.
Results: The total infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes decreased by 91.89% from 77.67% in 1989 to 6.30% in 2014, in which the infection rate of Ascaris lumbricoides decreased by 98.78% from 71.11% to 0.87%, the infection rate of Trichuris trichiura decreased by 96.80% from 29.67% to 0.95%, and the infection rate of hookworm declined by 73.57% from 17.63% to 4.66%. The infection rates of soil-transmitted nematodes in the female were higher than those in the male in three surveys. In different ecological districts, the infection rates of soil-transmitted nematodes in the female were also higher than those in the male, except in Zhe-Min Ecological District in 2002 and 2014. A declined trend of the infection was showed in all age-groups in the three surveys, but it slowed down by the growth of age, i.e., the reduction rate was 97.03% in the age group of < 10 years while 80.62% in the age group of >70 years. In 2014, the number of persons infected with soil-transmitted nematodes occupied 65.4% of the whole number of persons infected with intestinal parasites.
Conclusions: The mean infection rates of soil-transmitted nematodes decrease obviously in human population in different ecological districts, but the soil-transmitted nematodes are still the main species in intestinal parasite infections. The sequence of dominant species changes from A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura in 1989 to hookworm, T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides in 2014. The rural female and elder people are the key population, while hookworm is the key species for the prevention and control of soil-transmitted nematodes.
[摘要]目的 分析1989–2014年江西省人群土源性线虫病流行现状和变化趋势, 为制定防治对策提供科学依据。 方法 对1989、2002年和2014年3次全国人体寄生虫病抽样调查的江西省调查数据和资料进行归类分析, 调查时采用改良加藤厚涂片法检查土源性线虫感染情况。 结果 江西省人群的土源性线虫感染率由1989年的77.67%下降至2014年的 6.30%, 下降了 91.89%, 其中蛔虫感染率从 71.11% 下降到 0.87%, 下降率为 98.78%; 鞭虫感染率由 29.67% 下降至 0.95%, 下降率为96.80%; 钩虫感染率由17.63%下降到4.66%, 下降率为73.57%。 3次调查土源性线虫女性感染率均高于男性, 除2002年和2014年浙闽生态区外, 其它生态区土源性线虫女性均高于男性。 3次调查各年龄组人群土源性线虫感染率均出现下降的趋势, 但随年龄组增大呈下降趋缓现象, < 10岁年龄组下降率为97.03%, > 70岁年龄组下降率为 80.62%。 2014年土源性线虫感染人数占肠道寄生虫感染人数的65.4%。 结论 江西省各生态区人群土源性线虫平均感染率均呈显著下降趋势, 但仍然是肠道寄生虫感染的主要虫种。 土源性线虫感染的优势虫种排序已由1989年蛔虫、钩虫和鞭虫转换为2014年钩虫、鞭虫和蛔虫。 农村女性和高年龄组人群是目前土源性线虫病防治工作的重点人群, 钩虫是防治的重点虫种。.
Keywords: Infection rate; Jiangxi Province; Prevalent trend; Soil-transmitted nematodosis.