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. 2018 Feb 23;19(2):627.
doi: 10.3390/ijms19020627.

"Nano-Ginseng" for Enhanced Cytotoxicity AGAINST Cancer Cells

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Free PMC article

"Nano-Ginseng" for Enhanced Cytotoxicity AGAINST Cancer Cells

Lin Dai et al. Int J Mol Sci. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Panax ginseng has high medicinal and health values. However, the various and complex components of ginseng may interact with each other, thus reducing and even reversing therapeutic effects. In this study, we designed and fabricated a novel "nano-ginseng" with definite ingredients, ginsenoside Rb1/protopanaxadiol nanoparticles (Rb1/PPD NPs), completely based on the protopanaxadiol-type extracts. The optimized nano-formulations demonstrated an appropriate size (~110 nm), high drug loading efficiency (~96.8%) and capacity (~27.9 wt %), long half-time in systemic circulation (nine-fold longer than free PPD), better antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo, higher accumulation at the tumor site and reduced damage to normal tissues. Importantly, this process of "nano-ginseng" production is a simple, scalable, green economy process.

Keywords: anticancer; drug delivery; green process; nanoparticle; self-assemble.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
(a) Illustration; (b) Formation of ginsenoside Rb1/protopanaxadiol nanoparticles (Rb1/PPD NPs) (n = 3); and (c,d) optical, TEM images, and drug loading capacity (DLC) results.
Figure 2
Figure 2
(a) Release kinetics in pH 7.4 and 6.8 at 37 °C. The stability of (b) ζ-potential and (c) Size in pH 7.4 of the samples at 4 °C (n = 3).
Figure 3
Figure 3
(a) Hemolysis (n = 3), cell viability with (b) different times, (c) different concentrations, and (d) glucose competitions with Rb1 NPs and Rb1/PPD NPs (n = 3). * indicates a p-value of less than 0.05.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Biodistribution with the PPD and Rb1/PPD NPs for (a) 12 h and (b) 24 h (n = 3); (c) PPD content in tumor issues (n = 3); and (d) Blood concentration level of PPD and Rb1/PPD NPs (n= 3). * indicates a p-value of less than 0.05.
Figure 5
Figure 5
(a) Tumor inhibition, (b) survival rates, (c) body weight of tumor-bearing mice (n = 6), and (d) Immunoglobulin E (IgE) level, (e) relative ratios of white blood cells (WBC), and (f) platelets (PLT), with different samples (n = 6). During the development process of biomedical materials, hypersensitivity, bleeding, and other adverse reactions should be avoided to the greatest extent. Here, the immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody levels, white blood cell (WBC) number and platelets (PLT) of different treatments were detected. As expected, the administration of Rb1 NPs and Rb1/PPD NPs maintained normal IgE levels. There were no significant changes to the WBC and PLT ratios, highlighting the security of this nano-delivery system. * indicates a p-value of less than 0.05.

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