Risk Factors of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Producing Enterobacteriaceae Occurrence in Farms in Reunion, Madagascar and Mayotte Islands, 2016-2017

Vet Sci. 2018 Feb 23;5(1):22. doi: 10.3390/vetsci5010022.


In South Western Indian ocean (IO), Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are a main public health issue. In livestock, ESBL-E burden was unknown. The aim of this study was estimating the prevalence of ESBL-E on commercial farms in Reunion, Mayotte and Madagascar and genes involved. Secondly, risk factors of ESBL-E occurrence in broiler, beef cattle and pig farms were explored. In 2016-2017, commercial farms were sampled using boot swabs and samples stored at 4 °C before microbiological analysis for phenotypical ESBL-E and gene characterization. A dichotomous questionnaire was performed. Prevalences observed in all production types and territories were high, except for beef cattle in Reunion, which differed significantly. The most common ESBL gene was blaCTX-M-1. Generalized linear models explaining ESBL-E occurrence varied between livestock production sectors and allowed identifying main protective (e.g., water quality control and detergent use for cleaning) and risk factors (e.g., recent antibiotic use, other farmers visiting the exploitation, pet presence). This study is the first to explore tools for antibiotic resistance management in IO farms. It provides interesting hypothesis to explore about antibiotic use in IO territories and ESBL-E transmission between pig, beef cattle and humans in Madagascar.

Keywords: CTX-M; Indian ocean; enzymes; extended-spectrum β-Lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae; livestock; risk factors.