Blepharoplasty: Anatomy, Planning, Techniques, and Safety

Aesthet Surg J. 2019 Jan 1;39(1):10-28. doi: 10.1093/asj/sjy034.


Blepharoplasty is one of the most commonly performed cosmetic surgical procedures. To date it remains the most powerful method of periorbital rejuvenation when compared to other nonsurgical modalities, especially in the aging face. Despite that, the procedure has its shortcomings that include a steep learning curve, prolonged recovery, and potential for appearance and life-changing complications. Attaining successful outcomes relies on a solid understanding of facial topography, patient and technique selection, and, when appropriate, following a conservative approach. Modern blepharoplasty relies on tissue conservation and volume enhancement rather than aggressive removal. This concept was conceived after the realization that older techniques resulted in a hollowed appearance, which accentuated the aging process. It was further reinforced by advances in knowledge of periorbital anatomy and aging changes. This Continuing Medical Education article will detail periorbital surgical anatomy, preoperative planning, and varied blepharoplasty approaches and techniques, with an emphasis on safety and tailoring the procedure to the patient's anatomy.

MeSH terms

  • Blepharoplasty / adverse effects
  • Blepharoplasty / methods*
  • Esthetics
  • Eyelids / anatomy & histology*
  • Eyelids / surgery
  • Humans
  • Patient Care Planning
  • Postoperative Complications / etiology
  • Postoperative Complications / prevention & control*
  • Rejuvenation*
  • Skin Aging*
  • Treatment Outcome