Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection Mimicking Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Mycopathologia. 2018 Dec;183(6):973-977. doi: 10.1007/s11046-018-0252-y. Epub 2018 Feb 23.


Paracoccidioides infection is a rare entity in the USA. This dimorphic fungus is found in Central and South America and is thought to be acquired by inhalation through the soil. We report a case of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection presenting as a clavicular bone lesion, peripancreatic mass, and various skin lesions. A 35-year-old man with a history significant for Hodgkin lymphoma presented with a left clavicular mass that was suspected clinically and radiologically as recurrent Hodgkin lymphoma. He was not experiencing any associated symptoms and was undergoing chemotherapy treatment for his known Hodgkin disease. On CT imaging, the mass was seen as a lytic bone lesion with an overlying soft tissue mass. This was biopsied and histologically diagnosed as a Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection with associated necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. Also found on the CT scan was an enlarging peripancreatic mass which on endoscopic biopsy had similar histologic findings. In conclusion, this report presents a rare case of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection mimicking recurrent Hodgkin lymphoma.

Keywords: Fungus; Granulomatous inflammation; Hodgkin lymphoma; Paracoccidioides.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biopsy
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Histocytochemistry
  • Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis*
  • Hodgkin Disease / diagnostic imaging
  • Hodgkin Disease / pathology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Microscopy
  • Paracoccidioides / isolation & purification*
  • Paracoccidioidomycosis / diagnosis*
  • Paracoccidioidomycosis / diagnostic imaging
  • Paracoccidioidomycosis / pathology*
  • South America
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • United States