New clinicopathological associations and histoprognostic markers in ILAE types of hippocampal sclerosis

Brain Pathol. 2018 Sep;28(5):644-655. doi: 10.1111/bpa.12596. Epub 2018 Apr 10.


Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) is a heterogeneous syndrome. Surgery results in seizure freedom for most pharmacoresistant patients, but the epileptic and cognitive prognosis remains variable. The 2013 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) histopathological classification of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) has fostered research to understand MTLE-HS heterogeneity. We investigated the associations between histopathological features (ILAE types, hypertrophic CA4 neurons, granule cell layer alterations, CD34 immunopositive cells) and clinical features (presurgical history, postsurgical outcome) in a monocentric series of 247 MTLE-HS patients treated by surgery. NeuN, GFAP and CD34 immunostainings and a double independent pathological examination were performed. 186 samples were type 1, 47 type 2, 7 type 3 and 7 samples were gliosis only but no neuronal loss (noHS). In the type 1, hypertrophic CA4 neurons were associated with a worse postsurgical outcome and granule cell layer duplication was associated with generalized seizures and episodes of status epilepticus. In the type 2, granule cell layer duplication was associated with generalized seizures. CD34+ stellate cells were more frequent in the type 2, type 3 and in noHS. These cells had a Nestin and SOX2 positive, immature neural immunophenotype. Patients with nodules of CD34+ cells had more frequent dysmnesic auras. CD34+ stellate cells in scarce pattern were associated with higher ratio of normal MRI and of stereo-electroencephalographic studies. CD34+ cells were associated with a trend for a better postsurgical outcome. Among CD34+ cases, we proposed a new entity of BRAF V600E positive HS and we described three hippocampal multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumors. To conclude, our data identified new clinicopathological associations with ILAE types. They showed the prognostic value of CA4 hypertrophic neurons. They highlighted CD34+ stellate cells and BRAF V600E as biomarkers to further decipher MTLE-HS heterogeneity.

Keywords: CD34; ILAE classification; epilepsy; hippocampal sclerosis; hypertrophy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antigens, CD34 / metabolism
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Cohort Studies
  • Electroencephalography
  • Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe / diagnostic imaging
  • Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe / metabolism*
  • Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe / pathology*
  • Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe / surgery
  • Female
  • Gliosis / diagnostic imaging
  • Gliosis / metabolism
  • Gliosis / pathology
  • Gliosis / surgery
  • Hippocampus / diagnostic imaging
  • Hippocampus / metabolism*
  • Hippocampus / pathology*
  • Hippocampus / surgery
  • Humans
  • Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism
  • Male
  • Prognosis
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / metabolism
  • Sclerosis / diagnostic imaging
  • Sclerosis / metabolism
  • Sclerosis / pathology
  • Sclerosis / surgery


  • Antigens, CD34
  • Biomarkers
  • Intermediate Filament Proteins
  • alpha-internexin
  • BRAF protein, human
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf