Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin, which was initially isolated from milk. There are two coenzyme forms of riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide, in which riboflavin plays important roles in the enzymatic reactions. Riboflavin is found in a wide variety of animal and plant foods. Meat and dairy products are the major contributors of riboflavin dietary intake. In this chapter, the latest evidence on the relationship between riboflavin status and specific health risks will be reviewed. Also, some of the mechanisms by which riboflavin exerts its roles will be discussed. The evidence accrued suggests that riboflavin is an antioxidant nutrient which may prevent lipid peroxidation and reperfusion oxidative injury. Moreover, riboflavin deficiency may increase the risk of some cancers. Riboflavin may also exert a neuroprotective effects in some neurological disorders (e.g., Parkinson disease, migraine, and multiple sclerosis) through its role in some pathways that are hypothesized to be impaired in neurological disorders such as antioxidation, myelin formation, mitochondrial function, and iron metabolism.
Keywords: Antioxidant; Cancer; Neuroprotection; Oxidative stress; Riboflavin.
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