Neighborhood characteristics, bystander automated external defibrillator use, and patient outcomes in public out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

Resuscitation. 2018 May;126:72-79. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2018.02.021. Epub 2018 Mar 2.


Background: Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can be used by bystanders to provide rapid defibrillation for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Whether neighborhood characteristics are associated with AED use is unknown. Furthermore, the association between AED use and outcomes has not been well characterized for all (i.e. shockable and non-shockable) public OHCAs.

Methods: We included public, non-911-responder witnessed OHCAs registered in the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) between 2013 and 2016. The primary patient outcome was survival to hospital discharge with a favorable functional outcome. We first assessed the association between neighborhood characteristics and bystander AED use using logistic regression and then assessed the association between bystander AED use and patient outcomes in a propensity score matched cohort.

Results: 25,182 OHCAs were included. Several neighborhood characteristics, including the proportion of people living alone, the proportion of white people, and the proportion with a high-school degree or higher, were associated with bystander AED use. 5132 OHCAs were included in the propensity score-matched cohort. Bystander AED use was associated with an increased risk of a favorable functional outcome (35% vs. 25%, risk difference: 9.7% [95% confidence interval: 7.2%, 12.2%], risk ratio: 1.38 [95% confidence interval: 1.27, 1.50]). This was driven by increased favorable functional outcomes with AED use in patients with shockable rhythms (58% vs. 39%) but not in patients with non-shockable rhythms (10% vs. 10%).

Conclusions: Specific neighborhood characteristics were associated with bystander AED use in OHCA. Bystander AED use was associated with an increase in favorable functional outcome.

Keywords: Automated external defibrillator; Cardiac arrest; Neighborhood; Outcomes.

Publication types

  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation / methods*
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation / statistics & numerical data
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Defibrillators / statistics & numerical data*
  • Electric Countershock / methods
  • Electric Countershock / statistics & numerical data
  • Emergency Medical Services / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest / mortality
  • Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest / therapy*
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care*
  • Population Surveillance
  • Prospective Studies
  • Registries
  • Residence Characteristics*
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult