We report a repertoire of diverse aneuploids harbored by a newly synthesized segmental allotetraploid rice population with fully sequenced sub-genomes and demonstrate their retention features and phenotypic consequences. Aneuploidy, defined as unequal numbers of different chromosomes, is a large-effect genetic variant and may produce diverse cellular and organismal phenotypes. Polyploids are more permissive to chromosomal content imbalance than their diploid and haploid counterparts, and therefore, may enable more in-depth investigation of the phenotypic consequences of aneuploidy. Based on whole-genome resequencing, we identify that ca. 40% of the 312 selfed individual plants sampled from an early generation rice segmental allotetraploid population are constitutive aneuploids harboring 55 distinct aneuploid karyotypes. We document that gain of a chromosome is more prevalent than loss of a chromosome, and the 12 rice chromosomes have distinct tendencies to be in an aneuploid state. These properties of aneuploidy are constrained by multiple factors including the number of genes residing on the chromosome and predicted functional connectivity with other chromosomes. Two broad categories of aneuploidy-associated phenotypes are recognized: those shared by different aneuploids, and those associated with aneuploidy of a specific chromosome. A repertoire of diverse aneuploids in the context of a segmental allotetraploid rice genome with fully sequenced sub-genomes provides a tractable resource to explore the roles of aneuploidy in nascent polyploid genome evolution and helps to decipher the mechanisms conferring karyotypic stabilization on the path to polyploid speciation and towards artificial construction of novel polyploid crops.