Immunomodulatory effect of vitamin K2: Implications for bone health

Oral Dis. 2018 Mar;24(1-2):67-71. doi: 10.1111/odi.12759.


Objective: In women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, vitamin K2 appears to decrease the incidence of hip, vertebral, and non-vertebral fractures. Women with postmenopausal osteoporosis have more circulating activated T cells compared with healthy postmenopausal and premenopausal women, but the effects of vitamin K2 on T cells have not been studied. In this study, we have looked at T-cell suppression by vitamin K2.

Materials and methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from three healthy donors were used. The PBMCs were stimulated with the mitogens phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A, and T-cell proliferation was analyzed using flow cytometry based on carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CSFE) dye dilution.

Results: Vitamin K2 (60 and 100 μM) inhibited T-cell proliferation. Vitamin K1 at the same concentrations did not inhibit T-cell proliferation.

Conclusion: Vitamin K2 has immunomodulatory activities.

Keywords: T cells; immunomodulation; osteoporosis; vitamin k2.

MeSH terms

  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Humans
  • Immunomodulation / drug effects
  • T-Lymphocytes / physiology*
  • Vitamin K 1 / pharmacology
  • Vitamin K 2 / pharmacology*
  • Vitamins / pharmacology*


  • Vitamins
  • Vitamin K 2
  • Vitamin K 1