International Liver Transplantation Society Consensus Statement on Immunosuppression in Liver Transplant Recipients

Transplantation. 2018 May;102(5):727-743. doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000002147.


Effective immunosupression management is central to achieving optimal outcomes in liver transplant recipients. Current immunosuppression regimens and agents are highly effective in minimizing graft loss due to acute and chronic rejection but can also produce a substantial array of toxicities. The utilization of immunosuppression varies widely, contributing to the wide disparities in posttransplant outcomes reported between transplant centers. The International Liver Transplantation Society (ILTS) convened a consensus conference, comprised of a global panel of expert hepatologists, transplant surgeons, nephrologists, and pharmacologists to review the literature and experience pertaining to immunosuppression management to develop guidelines on key aspects of immunosuppression. The consensus findings and recommendations of the ILTS Consensus guidelines on immunosuppression in liver transplant recipients are presented in this article.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline
  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Consensus
  • End Stage Liver Disease / diagnosis
  • End Stage Liver Disease / epidemiology
  • End Stage Liver Disease / surgery*
  • Graft Rejection / immunology
  • Graft Rejection / prevention & control*
  • Graft Survival / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Liver Transplantation / adverse effects
  • Liver Transplantation / methods
  • Liver Transplantation / standards*
  • Postoperative Complications / etiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Immunosuppressive Agents