Introduction: Individuals with diabetes are at increased risk for complications, including gastroparesis. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder resulting in decreased beta-cell function. Glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 antibody (GADA) is the most commonly used test to assess autoimmunity while C-peptide level is used to assess beta-cell function. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), who are GADA positive, are labeled latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA).
Objective: To characterize patients with T1 and T2DM who have symptoms of gastroparesis using GADA and C-peptide levels and to look for association with the presence of gastroparesis and its symptom severity.
Design: 113 T1DM and 90 T2DM patients with symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis were studied. Symptom severity was assessed using Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI). Serum samples were analyzed for GADA and C-peptide.
Results: Delayed gastric emptying was present in 91 (81%) of T1DM and 60 (67%) of T2DM patients (p = 0.04). GADA was present in 13% of T2DM subjects [10% in delayed gastric emptying and 20% in normal gastric emptying (p = 0.2)]. Gastric retention and GCSI scores were mostly similar in GADA positive and negative T2DM patients. GADA was present in 45% of T1DM subjects [46% in delayed gastric emptying and 41% in normal gastric emptying (p = 0.81)]. Low C-peptide levels were seen in 79% T1DM patients and 8% T2DM. All seven T2DM patients with low C-peptide were taking insulin compared to 52% of T2DM with normal C-peptide.
Conclusion: GADA was present in 13% while low C-peptide was seen in 8% of our T2DM patients with symptoms of gastroparesis. Neither did correlate with degree of delayed gastric emptying or symptom severity.
Clinicaltrialsgov identifier: NCT01696747.
Keywords: C-peptide; GAD; GAD65; GAD65 antibodies; diabetic gastroparesis; gastric emptying; gastroparesis; islet cell antibodies.