Postprandial Gastrointestinal Function Differs after Acute Administration of Sourdough Compared with Brewer's Yeast Bakery Products in Healthy Adults

J Nutr. 2018 Feb 1;148(2):202-208. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxx049.


Background: Europeans consume large quantities of bakery products, although these are known as one of the food categories that potentially leads to postprandial symptoms (such as fullness and bloating).

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sourdough baked goods on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal fermentation and symptoms in healthy people.

Methods: In a double-blind, randomized crossover study, 2 sourdough croissants (SCs) or 2 brewer's yeast croissants (BCs) were served as single meals to 17 healthy adults [9 women; age range: 18-40 y; body mass index range (in kg/m2): 18-24]. Gastric volume (GV) was evaluated by magnetic resonance to calculate gastric-emptying rate in the 3-h interval after croissant ingestion. A hydrogen breath test was performed to measure hydrogen production after SC and BC ingestion. Palatability and postprandial gastrointestinal symptoms (discomfort, nausea, fullness, and bloating) over a 4-h period after the meal were evaluated. The area under the curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the overall effects on all variables tested.

Results: The total GV AUC was reduced by 11% during the 3 h after the consumption of SCs compared with BCs (P = 0.02). Hydrogen production during the 4-h interval after ingestion of SCs was 30% lower than after BCs (P = 0.03). SCs were rated as being >2 times as palatable as BCs (P < 0.001). The overall severity of postprandial symptoms was 36% lower during the 4 h after intake of SCs compared with BCs (P = 0.05).

Conclusion: Sourdough bakery products could promote better postprandial gastrointestinal function in healthy adults and be more acceptable than those prepared with brewer's yeast. This trial was registered at as NCT03207516.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Bread / microbiology*
  • Breath Tests
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diet
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Fermentation*
  • Gastric Emptying
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen / analysis
  • Lactobacillales / metabolism*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Postprandial Period*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism*
  • Stomach / anatomy & histology
  • Stomach / diagnostic imaging
  • Waist Circumference


  • Blood Glucose
  • Hydrogen

Associated data