The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria are tightly associated with very dynamic platforms termed mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). MAMs provide an excellent scaffold for crosstalk between the ER and mitochondria and play a pivotal role in different signaling pathways that allow rapid exchange of biological molecules to maintain cellular health. However, dysfunctions in the ER-mitochondria architecture are associated with pathological conditions and human diseases. Inflammation has emerged as one of the various pathways that MAMs control. Inflammasome components and other inflammatory factors promote the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that sustain pathological conditions. In this review, we summarize the critical role of MAMs in initiating inflammation in the cellular defense against pathogenic infections and the association of MAMs with inflammation-mediated diseases.