Objective: To study outcomes with use of percutaneous mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices in chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Methods: We examined characteristics and outcomes of 1598 CTO-PCIs performed from 2012-2017 at 12 high-volume centers.
Results: Patient age was 66 ± 10 years; 86% were men. An MCS device was used electively in 69 procedures (4%) and urgently in 22 procedures (1%). The most commonly used elective MCS device was Impella 2.5 or CP (62%). Compared to patients without elective MCS, patients with elective MCS had higher prevalence of prior heart failure (55% vs 29%; P<.001), prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery (49% vs 35%; P=.02), and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (34 ± 14% vs 50 ± 14%; P<.001). MCS patients had a higher prevalence of moderate/ severe calcification (88% vs 55%; P<.001) and higher J-CTO scores (3.1 ± 1.2 vs 2.6 ± 1.2; P<.01), and a greater proportion underwent retrograde crossing attempts (55% vs 39%; P<.01). Despite more complex characteristics in MCS patients, technical success rates (88% vs 87%; P=.70) and procedural success rates (83% vs 87%; P=.32) were similar in the two groups. Use of elective MCS was associated with longer procedure and fluoroscopy times, and higher incidences of in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular events (8.7% vs 2.5%; P<.01) and bleeding (7.3% vs 1.0%; P<.001).
Conclusion: Elective MCS was used in 4% of patients undergoing CTO-PCI. Despite more complex clinical and angiographic characteristics, elective use of MCS in high-risk patients is associated with similar technical and procedural success rates, but higher risk of complications, compared to cases without elective MCS.