In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2024 Jan.


Minoxidil, also known as 2,4-pyrimidinediamine, 6-(1-piperidinyl)-, 3-oxide, was initially developed in the 1970s as a potent peripheral vasodilator agent for the treatment of severe refractory hypertension. Minoxidil exerts its antihypertensive effect by opening adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channels, thereby reducing peripheral resistance and lowering blood pressure levels in patients. However, owing to the significant adverse effects of taking oral minoxidil, this drug is currently used only for patients with resistant hypertension who do not adequately respond to the maximum doses of 3 different classes of antihypertensive medications. In 1987, a topical formulation of minoxidil was developed to treat androgenic alopecia, initially targeting males and later expanding its use to include females. This activity comprehensively reviews the indications, contraindications, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, and other crucial aspects of topical and oral minoxidil therapy in a clinical setting. This activity aims to improve the collaboration and the competence of the interprofessional healthcare team members to provide quality care for patients experiencing hair loss and resistant hypertension.

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