Cognitive-Functional (Cog-Fun) Dyadic Intervention for Children with ADHD and Their Parents: Impact on Parenting Self-Efficacy

Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2018 Nov;38(4):444-456. doi: 10.1080/01942638.2018.1441939. Epub 2018 Mar 1.


Aim: The family context of children with ADHD plays a role in intervention outcomes, especially when parents are involved in treatment. Parental participation in evidence-based treatment for ADHD may play a role in improving their own parenting self-efficacy (PSE) as well as child outcomes. This study examined the impact of Cognitive-Functional (Cog-Fun) intervention in occupational therapy (OT) for school-aged children with ADHD, on PSE.

Methods: In this randomized controlled trial with crossover design, 107 children were allocated to intervention and waitlist control groups. Intervention participants (n = 50) received Cog-Fun after baseline assessment and waitlist controls (n = 49) received treatment 3 months later. Intervention participants received 3-month follow-up assessment. Treatment included 10 parent-child Cog-Fun weekly sessions. PSE was assessed with the Tool to measure Parenting Self-Efficacy (TOPSE).

Results: All children who began treatment completed it. Mixed ANOVA revealed significant Time x Group interaction effects on TOPSE scales of Play and Enjoyment, Control, Self-Acceptance, Knowledge and Learning and Total score, which showed significant improvement with moderate treatment effects for the intervention group. Results were replicated in the control group after crossover.

Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that Cog-Fun OT intervention may be effective for improving aspects of PSE among parents of children with ADHD.

Keywords: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; cognitive rehabilitation; evidence-based research; intervention studies.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / therapy*
  • Child
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Occupational Therapy / methods*
  • Parenting / psychology*
  • Parents / psychology*
  • Psychometrics
  • Self Efficacy*
  • Waiting Lists