Polysaccharide isolated from Aloe vera gel suppresses ovalbumin-induced food allergy through inhibition of Th2 immunity in mice

Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 May;101:201-210. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.02.061. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Abstract

An allergic reaction occurs when the immune system overreacts to harmless substance called allergen that gains access to the body. Food allergy is a hypersensitive immune reaction to food proteins and the number of patients with food allergy has recently increased. Aloe Vera is used for wellness and medicinal purposes. In particular, Aloe vera has been reported to enhance immunity. However, the effect of Aloe vera on food allergy is not yet known. In this study, we investigated the effects of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) containing low molecular weight Aloe polysaccharide (AP) on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced food allergy in mice. Allergic symptoms, rectal temperature, and diarrhea were measured in OVA-induced food allergy mice. Other allergic parameters were also analyzed by RT-PCR, ELISA, flow cytometry, and other biochemical methods. As the results, PAG suppressed the decrease of body temperature, diarrhea, and allergic symptoms in OVA-induced food allergy mice. PAG also reduced serum concentrations of type 2 helper T cell (Th2) cytokines (Interleukin-(IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13) as well as histamine, mast cell protease-1 (MCP-1), and immunoglobulin (Ig)E. PAG blocked the degranulation of mast cells and infiltration of eosinophils in intestine. Furthermore, PAG suppressed the population of Th2 cells in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. PAG also increased the production of IL-10 and population of type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells in mice with food allergy. Taken together, our findings suggest that PAG suppressed Th2 immune responses through, at least partially, stimulating the secretion of IL-10 in food allergy mice.

Keywords: Aloe polysaccharide; Food allergy; Interleukin-10; Processed polysaccharide of Aloe vera gel; Th2 immune response.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Female
  • Food Hypersensitivity / immunology
  • Food Hypersensitivity / prevention & control*
  • Immunoglobulin E / immunology
  • Intestines / immunology
  • Mast Cells / immunology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Ovalbumin / immunology
  • Plant Preparations / chemistry*
  • Polysaccharides / isolation & purification
  • Polysaccharides / pharmacology*
  • Spleen / immunology
  • Th2 Cells / immunology*

Substances

  • Aloe vera gel
  • Cytokines
  • Plant Preparations
  • Polysaccharides
  • Immunoglobulin E
  • Ovalbumin