Hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (H-ChC) is a rare subtype of liver cancer with clinicopathological features of both hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). To date, molecular mechanisms underlying the co-existence of HCC and iCCA components in a single tumor remain elusive. Here, we show that H-ChC samples contain substantial private mutations from WES analyses, ranging from 33.1 to 86.4%, indicative of substantive intratumor heterogeneity (ITH). However, on the other hand, numerous ubiquitous mutations shared by HCC and iCCA suggest the monoclonal origin of H-ChC. Mutated genes identified herein, e.g., VCAN, ACVR2A, and FCGBP, are speculated to contribute to distinct differentiation of HCC and iCCA within H-ChC. Moreover, immunohistochemistry demonstrates that EpCAM is highly expressed in 80% of H-ChC, implying the stemness of such liver cancer. In summary, our data highlight the monoclonal origin and stemness of H-ChC, as well as substantial intratumoral heterogeneity.