Uricosuria and crystallization are increasingly recognized risk factors for diabetic tubulopathy. This pilot clinical trial aimed to determine the acute effect of urinary alkalinization using oral sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ) on UA crystals in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Adults with T1D, ages 18 to 65 years (n = 45, 60% female, HbA1c, 7.5 ± 1.2%, 20.2 ± 9.3 years duration) without chronic kidney disease (eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and albumin-to-creatinine ratio < 30 mg/g) received 2 doses of 1950 mg oral NaHCO3 over 24 hours. Fasting urine and serum were collected pre- and post-intervention. UA crystals were identified under polarized microscopy. Urine measurements included: osmolality, pH, UA, creatinine and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1). NaHCO3 therapy increased mean ± SD urine pH from 6.1 ± 0.7 to 6.5 ± 0.7 (P < .0001). Prior to therapy, 31.0% of participants had UA crystals vs 6.7% post therapy (P = .005). Change in urine pH inversely correlated with change in urine KIM-1 (r:-0.51, P = .0003). In addition, change in urine UA over 24 hours correlated with change in urine KIM-1 (r:0.37, P = .01). In conclusion, oral NaHCO3 normalized urine pH and decreased UA crystals, and may hold promise as an inexpensive and safe tubulo-protective intervention in individuals with T1D.
Keywords: sodium bicarbonate; type 1 diabetes; uric acid; urine uric acid crystals.
© 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.