Recent Understandings of Biology, Prophylaxis and Treatment Strategies for Hypertrophic Scars and Keloids

Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Mar 2;19(3):711. doi: 10.3390/ijms19030711.


Hypertrophic scars and keloids are fibroproliferative disorders that may arise after any deep cutaneous injury caused by trauma, burns, surgery, etc. Hypertrophic scars and keloids are cosmetically problematic, and in combination with functional problems such as contractures and subjective symptoms including pruritus, these significantly affect patients' quality of life. There have been many studies on hypertrophic scars and keloids; but the mechanisms underlying scar formation have not yet been well established, and prophylactic and treatment strategies remain unsatisfactory. In this review, the authors introduce and summarize classical concepts surrounding wound healing and review recent understandings of the biology, prevention and treatment strategies for hypertrophic scars and keloids.

Keywords: hypertrophic scar; keloid; scar biology; scar prevention; scar treatment.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers
  • Cicatrix, Hypertrophic / etiology*
  • Cicatrix, Hypertrophic / metabolism
  • Cicatrix, Hypertrophic / prevention & control
  • Cicatrix, Hypertrophic / therapy*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Extracellular Matrix
  • Humans
  • Keloid / etiology*
  • Keloid / metabolism
  • Keloid / prevention & control
  • Keloid / therapy*
  • Wound Healing


  • Biomarkers
  • Cytokines