Objectives: Enolase-1-dependent cell surface proteolysis plays an important role in cell invasion. Although enolase-1 (Eno-1), a glycolytic enzyme, has been found on the surface of various cells, the mechanism responsible for its exteriorization remains elusive. Here, we investigated the involvement of post-translational modifications (PTMs) of Eno-1 in its lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered trafficking to the cell surface.
Results: We found that stimulation of human lung adenocarcinoma cells with LPS triggered the monomethylation of arginine 50 (R50me) within Eno-1. The Eno-1R50me was confirmed by its interaction with the tudor domain (TD) from TD-containing 3 (TDRD3) protein recognizing methylarginines. Substitution of R50 with lysine (R50K) reduced Eno-1 association with epithelial caveolar domains, thereby diminishing its exteriorization. Similar effects were observed when pharmacological inhibitors of arginine methyltransferases were applied. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) was identified to be responsible for Eno-1 methylation. Overexpression of PRMT5 and caveolin-1 enhanced levels of membrane-bound extracellular Eno-1 and, conversely, pharmacological inhibition of PRMT5 attenuated Eno-1 cell-surface localization. Importantly, Eno-1R50me was essential for cancer cell motility since the replacement of Eno-1 R50 by lysine or the suppression of PRMT 5 activity diminished Eno-1-triggered cell invasion.
Conclusions: LPS-triggered Eno-1R50me enhances Eno-1 cell surface levels and thus potentiates the invasive properties of cancer cells. Strategies to target Eno-1R50me may offer novel therapeutic approaches to attenuate tumor metastasis in cancer patients.
Keywords: Cancer; Cell surface; Enolase; Invasion; PRMT5; Protein arginine methylation.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.