Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study is to examine the effects of a nano-structured alumina coating on the adhesion between resin cements and zirconia ceramics using a four-point bending test.
Materials and methods: 100 pairs of zirconium bar specimens were prepared with dimensions of 25 mm × 2 mm × 5 mm and cementation surfaces of 5 mm × 2 mm. The samples were divided into 5 groups of 20 pairs each. The groups are as follows: Group I (C) - Control with no surface modification, Group II (APA) - airborne-particle-abrasion with 110 µm high-purity aluminum oxide (Al2O3) particles, Group III (ROC) - airborne-particle-abrasion with 110 µm silica modified aluminum oxide (Al2O3 + SiO2) particles, Group IV (TCS) - tribochemical silica coated with Al2O3 particles, and Group V (AlC) - nano alumina coating. The surface modifications were assessed on two samples selected from each group by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The samples were cemented with two different self-adhesive resin cements. The bending bond strength was evaluated by mechanical testing.
Results: According to the ANOVA results, surface treatments, different cement types, and their interactions were statistically significant (P<.05). The highest flexural bond strengths were obtained in nanostructured alumina coated zirconia surfaces (50.4 MPa) and the lowest values were obtained in the control group (12.00 MPa), both of which were cemented using a self-adhesive resin cement.
Conclusion: The surface modifications tested in the current study affected the surface roughness and flexural bond strength of zirconia. The nano alumina coating method significantly increased the flexural bond strength of zirconia ceramics.
Keywords: Four-point bending; Nano-structured alumina coating; Surface modification; Zirconia.