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. 2018 Feb 28;4(2):eaao7228.
doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aao7228. eCollection 2018 Feb.

Einstein@Home Discovers a Radio-Quiet Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsar

Colin J Clark  1   2   3 Holger J Pletsch  1   2 Jason Wu  4 Lucas Guillemot  4   5   6 Matthew Kerr  7 Tyrel J Johnson  8 Fernando Camilo  9 David Salvetti  10 Bruce Allen  1   2   11 David Anderson  12 Carsten Aulbert  1   2 Christian Beer  1   2 Oliver Bock  1   2 Andres Cuéllar  1   2 Heinz-Bernd Eggenstein  1   2   13 Henning Fehrmann  1   2 Michael Kramer  3   4 Shawn A Kwang  11 Bernd Machenschalk  1   2 Lars Nieder  1   2 Markus Ackermann  14 Marco Ajello  15 Luca Baldini  16 Jean Ballet  17 Guido Barbiellini  18   19 Denis Bastieri  20   21 Ronaldo Bellazzini  22 Elisabetta Bissaldi  23   24 Roger D Blandford  25 Elliott D Bloom  25 Raffaella Bonino  26   27 Eugenio Bottacini  25 Terri J Brandt  28 Johan Bregeon  29 Philippe Bruel  30 Rolf Buehler  14 Toby H Burnett  31 Sara Buson  28 Rob A Cameron  25 Regina Caputo  32 Patrizia A Caraveo  10 Elisabetta Cavazzuti  33 Claudia Cecchi  34   35 Eric Charles  25 Alexandre Chekhtman  8 Stefano Ciprini  34   36 Lynn R Cominsky  37 Denise Costantin  21 Sara Cutini  34   36 Filippo D'Ammando  38   39 Andrea De Luca  10   40 Rachele Desiante  26   41 Leonardo Di Venere  23   24 Mattia Di Mauro  25 Niccolò Di Lalla  16 Seth W Digel  25 Cecilia Favuzzi  23   24 Elizabeth C Ferrara  28   42 Anna Franckowiak  14 Yasushi Fukazawa  43 Stefan Funk  44 Piergiorgio Fusco  23   24 Fabio Gargano  24 Dario Gasparrini  34   36 Nico Giglietto  23   24 Francesco Giordano  23   24 Marcello Giroletti  38 Germán A Gomez-Vargas  45   46 David Green  28   47 Isabelle A Grenier  17 Sylvain Guiriec  28   48 Alice K Harding  28 John W Hewitt  49 Deirdre Horan  30 Guðlaugur Jóhannesson  50   51 Shiki Kensei  43 Michael Kuss  22 Giovanni La Mura  21 Stefan Larsson  52   53 Luca Latronico  26 Jian Li  54 Francesco Longo  18   19 Francesco Loparco  23   24 Michael N Lovellette  7 Pasquale Lubrano  34 Jeffrey D Magill  47 Simone Maldera  26 Alberto Manfreda  16 Mario N Mazziotta  24 Julie E McEnery  28   47 Peter F Michelson  25 Nestor Mirabal  28 Warit Mitthumsiri  55 Tsunefumi Mizuno  56 Maria Elena Monzani  25 Aldo Morselli  46 Igor V Moskalenko  25 Eric Nuss  29 Takashi Ohsugi  56 Nicola Omodei  25 Monica Orienti  38 Elena Orlando  25 Michele Palatiello  18   19 Vaidehi S Paliya  15 Francesco de Palma  24   57 David Paneque  58 Jeremy S Perkins  28 Massimo Persic  18   59 Melissa Pesce-Rollins  22 Troy A Porter  25 Giacomo Principe  44 Silvia Rainò  23   24 Riccardo Rando  20   21 Paul S Ray  7 Massimiliano Razzano  22 Anita Reimer  25   60 Olaf Reimer  25   60 Roger W Romani  25 Pablo M Saz Parkinson  61   62   63 Carmelo Sgrò  22 Eric J Siskind  64 David A Smith  65 Francesca Spada  22 Gloria Spandre  22 Paolo Spinelli  23   24 Jana B Thayer  25 David J Thompson  28 Diego F Torres  54   66 Eleonora Troja  28   47 Giacomo Vianello  25 Kent Wood  67 Matthew Wood  25
Affiliations
Free PMC article

Einstein@Home Discovers a Radio-Quiet Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsar

Colin J Clark et al. Sci Adv. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are old neutron stars that spin hundreds of times per second and appear to pulsate as their emission beams cross our line of sight. To date, radio pulsations have been detected from all rotation-powered MSPs. In an attempt to discover radio-quiet gamma-ray MSPs, we used the aggregated power from the computers of tens of thousands of volunteers participating in the Einstein@Home distributed computing project to search for pulsations from unidentified gamma-ray sources in Fermi Large Area Telescope data. This survey discovered two isolated MSPs, one of which is the only known rotation-powered MSP to remain undetected in radio observations. These gamma-ray MSPs were discovered in completely blind searches without prior constraints from other observations, raising hopes for detecting MSPs from a predicted Galactic bulge population.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1. Pulsed signals from the two newly discovered MSPs.
Rotational phases of individual gamma-ray photons (bottom) and integrated pulse profiles (top) of the newly detected MSPs. Each photon has been assigned a weight, determined by its energy and arrival direction, representing the probability of it having come from the gamma-ray source in question. These weights are indicated by the color bar. In the top panels, the black dashed line shows the estimated background level, derived from the photon weights as in study of Abdo et al. (9). For PSR J1035−6720, the blue line shows the radio profile as measured by the Parkes radio telescope at 1400 MHz, averaged over four observations after subtracting an estimated baseline (dotted line). Two identical rotations are shown for clarity. MJD, Modified Julian Date.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2. Pseudo-luminosities (L1400 = S1400 d2) of known MSPs (including both Galactic field MSPs and those found in globular clusters) with flux density and distance measurements in the ATNF Catalogue (26), version 1.57.
The measured pseudo-luminosities of PSR J1035−6720 according to the NE2001 and YMW16 Galactic dispersion models are shown by solid and dashed vertical lines, respectively. The dotted and dashed-dotted vertical lines show the upper limits on the pseudo-luminosity of PSR J1744−7619, assuming a maximum distance of 1 kpc, from two dedicated follow-up radio observations and (a conservative estimate) from the 10 shorter observations of Camilo et al. (6), respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3. Pulse profiles of the two new gamma-ray MSPs, showing the phase definitions of the off-pulse regions (blue dashed-dotted lines) used to search for unpulsed gamma-ray emission.
The estimated background levels are shown by the black dashed lines. No significant off-pulse emission was detected from PSR J1035−6720. Off-pulse emission was detected with a significance of ~ 5σ from PSR J1744−7619.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4. Distance and spin-down constraints for the two new MSPs obtained from their gamma-ray flux, radio dispersion measure, and timing measurements of their proper motion.
(Top) constraints on MSP distances, as in figure 11 of the work by Abdo et al. (9). Assuming certain gamma-ray efficiencies, constraints on the pulsar distance are inferred from the gamma-ray flux and spin-down power, after correcting the observed ν. for the Shklovskii effect due to the measured proper motion (1σ range given by the gray shaded region). The physically realistic region is to the left of the 100% efficiency line (Lγ=E.), although higher apparent efficiencies are possible, depending on the beam correction factor. Contours of constant transverse velocity are shown in gray. For PSR J1035−6720, the green dotted and dashed-dotted vertical lines show the DM distance according to the YMW16 and NE2001 models, respectively. For PSR J1744−7619, the ν.INT=0 line shows the required distance for the observed spin down to be purely due to the Shklovskii effect, giving a hard upper limit. (Bottom) Spin-down powers after correcting ν. for the Shklovskii effect. The shaded region shows the allowed range for E. at each distance, given the observed proper motion. The solid curves show E. as a function of distance at fixed gamma-ray efficiencies. The dashed line shows the maximum E., that is, if there was no proper motion.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5. Gamma-ray pulse profiles of the newly detected MSPs.
The overlaying curves are the best-fitting pulse profiles predicted by fits to OG, TPC, and PSPC gamma-ray emission models. The black dashed line is the estimated background level, derived from the photon weights as in the study of Abdo et al. (9). Predicted radio pulse profiles (with arbitrary baseline and normalization) are shown by dashed-dotted lines. The three models are shown in separate rotations for clarity.

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