Esthetic treatment of altered passive eruption

Periodontol 2000. 2018 Jun;77(1):65-83. doi: 10.1111/prd.12206. Epub 2018 Mar 4.


Altered passive eruption is described as a condition in which the relationship between teeth, alveolar bone and soft tissues creates an excessive display of gingiva, commonly known as a 'gummy smile'. While there are authors who consider altered passive eruption to be a risk to periodontal health, its impact is greatest in terms of oral esthetics. The aim of periodontal management in such cases is not only to improve patient esthetics but also to restore periodontal health by re-establishing the normal relationship between the gingival margin, alveolar bone crest and cemento-enamel junction. The aim of this article is to present a narrative review of the etiology, classification and management of altered passive eruption.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cosmetic Techniques*
  • Esthetics, Dental*
  • Gingiva / anatomy & histology*
  • Humans
  • Oral Surgical Procedures*
  • Risk Factors
  • Smiling*
  • Tooth Eruption / physiology*