Every year in the United States, more than 300,000 infants are admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICU) where they are exposed to a chemical-intensive hospital environment during a developmentally vulnerable period. The neurodevelopmental impact of environmental exposure to phthalates during the NICU stay is unknown. As phthalate exposure during the third trimester developmental window has been implicated in neurobehavioral deficits in term-born children that are strikingly similar to a phenotype of neurobehavioral morbidity common among children born premature, the role of early-life phthalate exposure on the neurodevelopmental trajectory of premature infants may be clinically important. In this study, premature newborns with birth weight <1500g were recruited to participate in a prospective environmental health cohort study, NICU-HEALTH (Hospital Exposures and Long-Term Health), part of the DINE (Developmental Impact of NICU Exposures) cohort of the ECHO (Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes) program. Seventy-six percent of eligible infants enrolled in the study. Sixty-four of 81 infants survived and are included in this analysis. 164 urine specimens were analyzed for phthalate metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) was performed prior to NICU discharge. Linear and weighted quantile sum regression quantified associations between phthalate biomarkers and NNNS performance, and between phthalate biomarkers and intensity of medical intervention. The sum of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites (∑DEHP) was associated with improved performance on the Attention and Regulation scales. Specific mixtures of phthalate biomarkers were also associated with improved NNNS performance. More intense medical intervention was associated with higher ∑DEHP exposure. NICU-based exposure to phthalates mixtures was associated with improved attention and social response. This suggests that the impact of phthalate exposure on neurodevelopment may follow a non-linear trajectory, perhaps accelerating the development of certain neural networks. The long-term neurodevelopmental impact of NICU-based phthalate exposure needs to be evaluated.